- By Aisha Malik
Genetically Modified Humans made in a lab near you
Scientists in the UK have been given the go ahead by the fertility regulator to genetically modify human embryos. It is the first time a country has considered the DNA altering technique in human embryos and approved it.
The research will take place at the Francis Crick Institute in London and aims to provide a deeper understanding of the earliest moments of human life.
It will be illegal for the scientists to implant the modified embryos into a woman.
But the field is attracting controversy over concerns it is opening the door to designer or GM babies. The idea of being able to choose, at a dramatic financial cost, the intelligence, height, build, skin, eye and hair colour and natural immunity of your child has been debated in the UK for many years.
In a world-first in 2015, scientists in China announced they had carried out gene editing in human embryos to correct a gene that causes specific disorders. The exact specifics including the legality of the experiment were largely kept private.
Prof Robin Lovell-Badge, a scientific advisor to the UK’s fertility regulator, told the BBC: “China has guidelines, but it is often unclear exactly what they are until you’ve done it and stepped over an unclear boundary. This is the first time it has gone through a properly regulatory system and been approved.”
The experiments will take place in the first seven days after fertilisation.
During this time the embryo will grow from a fertilised egg to a stage called a blastocyst, containing 200-300 cells.
The work will be led by Dr Kathy Niakan, who has spent a decade researching human development. Earlier this year, she explained why she had applied to edit human embryos: “We would really like to understand the genes needed for a human embryo to develop successfully into a healthy baby. The reason why it is so important is because miscarriages and infertility are extremely common, but they’re not very well understood.”
Out of every 100 fertilised eggs, fewer than 50 reach the early blastocyst stage, 25 implant into the womb and only 13 develop beyond three months. It is at the blastocyst stage that some cells have been organised to perform specific roles, some go on to form the placenta, others the yolk sac and others ultimately the child itself. How and why this takes place is unknown to modern science but some parts of our DNA are highly active at this stage so it is a common hypothesis that it is the DNA that controls how early stage cells are assigned.
It is likely these genes are guiding our early development, but it is unclear exactly what they are doing or what goes wrong in miscarriage. The researchers will alter these genes in donated embryos, which will be destroyed after seven days.
The regulator, the Human Fertilisation and Embryology Authority (HFEA), has given its approval to the experiments which could start in the next few months.